Mounting / Fixing Raspbian SD Card from Raspberry Pi

Shut down my Pi today and thought to make a copy of files in its SD card. This is what mount /dev/sdf2 /mnt had to say:

mount: wrong fs type, bad option, bad superblock on /dev/sdf2,
       missing codepage or helper program, or other error
       In some cases useful info is found in syslog - try
       dmesg | tail  or so

Great. After trying parted and fsck, it became apparent that for some reason, the root partition is marked as being 1 block longer than the physical card. Must be a bug with Raspbian partition expansion or something.

Thankfully, I found this gold nugget which suggested using resize2fs to fix it. Turns out I had to run e2fsck first (and say “y” a couple of times):

sudo e2fsck /dev/sdf2
sudo resize2fs /dev/sdf2
mount /dev/sdf2 /mnt

Voilá! Fully functioning filesystem again.

Giving Raspberry Pi Camera Nearsight with Reading Glasses

Raspberry Pi with Reading Glasses

Back again! The summer holidays gave me some time to write after a long hiatus, and this time it’s a Raspberry Pi related article. I’ve had the excellent opportunity to play around with a Raspberry Pi Camera Module for a few days. Or actually modules, as I got both the normal and NoIR without IR filter (more about that later) from Farnell / Element 14. They also stock an excellent selection of Pi accessories, so be sure to check those out, too.

But without further ado, let’s get onward. I’m still thinking up cool projects to do with the camera, so if you have nice ideas, please feel free to share them in the comments section!

Unboxing and First Impressions

Raspberry Pi IR camera and a normal one

The camera modules arrived in simple boxes, branded with element14 logo and URL. A nice additional touch was an included instruction sheet outlining the installation procedure, as well as a link to with further info.

Both the IR-filtered (the one showing normal visible light) and the NoIR (the one without the filter, and thus showing both normal light AND infrared) have exact same outward appearance. The installation was quite easy, but the flat cable offers less positioning and flexing freedom that your standard webcam – obviously the Pi camera is meant for more integrated installations.

Raspberry Pi camera electronics
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Raspberry Pi as Arduino HDMI Shield

Arduino to Pi serial link

Merry Christmas to everyone! Today’s hack is something that I’ve been planning to try out for a while: Using the Raspberry Pi as a (relatively inexpensive) “HDMI shield” for the Arduino microcontroller. While the Pi can easily do most things that the Arduino can and usually much more, one might have an otherwise complete project (for example, something related to home theater automation) that would benefit from HDMI output.

Arduino display shields are not the least expensive, so why not use a RaspPi instead? There have been hacks for using RaspPi as network shield, too, and this project is very much like it (actually, you could change the Pi-side code just a bit and have some network-related commands available for your Arduino in no time).

The basic hardware premise for this hack is very straightforward – wire the Pi and Arduino together using the serial interface available on both. Because Pi is 3.3V and Arduino 5V, a level converter is needed – I used one from Adafruit this time, as it’s dead simple to use and doesn’t pose the dangers of overloading Pi like my simple resistor option does (you might, however, check that link out as it contains the pinouts for RaspPi serial pins in the GPIO header).

On software side, the Pi acts as a “server”, taking simple display commands via serial link. You could even start the Pi server script and connect to the serial port with Putty, and the session could look a bit like the following:

# initialize viewport - not actually implemented yet
init 500 500
# draw a 10x10 rectangle at (5,15)
draw 5 15 10 10
# exit the server

The python server uses pyserial for serial communications, currently at 9600 bps, but the Pi and Arduino should be able to do 115 200 as well. For graphics, pygame framework is used. Current version of code initializes a 500×500 pixel graphics viewport, but one could use the parameters given by “init” command from Arduino side to define that, too. The code should be rather straightforward to understand: there are only two supported commands, “draw” with four parameters, and “quit” to exit the otherwise infinite loop waiting for draw commands (I named the file

#!/usr/bin/env python

import serial
import string
import pygame

ser = serial.Serial("/dev/ttyAMA0",9600)

window = pygame.display.set_mode((500, 500))
colour = pygame.Color("blue")

quit = False

while not quit:
	line = ser.readline()
	words = line.split()

	if words[0] == "rect":
		pygame.draw.rect(window, colour, (int(words[1]), 
                                 int(words[2]), int(words[3]), int(words[4])))
	elif words[0] == "exit":
		quit = True


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Color composite video decoding with Picoscope 3206B

I recently finished an improved version of the NTSC composite video decoder previously featured here at Code and Life. With the bigger buffer of Picoscope 3206B, I was able to capture enough samples per frame to add color. A Youtube demonstration video has just finished uploading and you can view it below.

I already talk a bit about the techniques used in the new version, as well as the new features. For the readers of this blog, I’m planning a more detailed technical explanation, which I’ll put up as soon as I get the infographics for that one done.

Enjoy the show! If you want to take a look at the sources (or better yet, have a 3000 series Picoscope at hand), you can grab the source package. My code is licensed under GPL, see README.txt inside the archive for details.

Update: Technical details now published! Implementation details to be added in another post a bit later.

Realtime Composite Video Decoding with PicoScope

After getting my Raspberry Pi and successfully trying out serial console and communication with Arduino, I wanted to see if I could use the Pi as a “display shield” for Arduino and other simpler microcontroller projects. However, this plan had a minor problem: My workstation’s monitor wouldn’t display the HDMI image from Pi, and neither had it had a composite input. Working with the Pi in my living room which has a projector with both HDMI and composite was an option, but spreading all my gear there didn’t seem like such a good plan. But then I got a crazy idea:

The Pi has a composite output, which seems like a standard RCA connector. Presumably it’s sending out a rather straightforward analog signal. Would it be possible to digitize this signal and emulate a composite video display on the PC?

The short answer is: Yes. The medium length answer is, that it either requires an expensive oscilloscope with very large capture buffer (millions of samples), or then something that can stream the data fast enough so there’s enough samples per scanline to go by. Turns out my Picoscope 2204 can do the latter just enough – it isn’t enough for color, but here’s what I was able to achieve (hint: you may want to set video quality to 480p):

What my program does is essentially capture a run of 500 000 samples at 150ns intervals, analyze the data stream to see whether we have a working frame (and because the signal is interlaced, whether we got odd or even pixels), plot it on screen and get a new set of data. It essentially creates a “virtual composite input” for the PC. There’s some jitter and horizontal resolution lost due to capture rate and decoding algorithm limitations, and the picture is monochrome, but if you consider that realtime serial decoding is considered a nice feature in oscilloscopes, this does take things to a whole another level.

Read on to learn how this is achieved, and you’ll learn a thing or two about video signals! I’ve also included full source code (consider it alpha grade) for any readers with similar equipment in their hands.

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Arduino and Raspberry Pi Serial Communication

Today’s the last day of my summer holiday, and I had some free time on my hands. So I decided to see if I could get my Arduino Uno and Raspberry Pi to talk to each other. It turned out the task was even easier than my previous Pi to RS-232 project – all that was needed between the two devices was some jumper wire and two 1 kOhm resistors to form a voltage divider between Arduino TX pin and Pi RX pin – Arduino understands Pi’s 3.3V signal levels just fine so Pi TX to Arduino RX needed no voltage shifting at all.

IMPORTANT UPDATE! It turns out that the RX pin on the Arduino is held at 5V even when that pin is not initialized. I suspect it is due to the fact that the Arduino is programmed via these same pins every time you flash it from Arduino IDE, and there are external (weak) pullups to keep the lines to 5V at other times. So the method described below may be risky – I suggest either add a resistor in series to the RX pin, or use a proper level converter (see this post for details how to accomplish that). And if you do try the method below, never connect the Pi to Arduino RX pin before you have already flashed the program to Arduino, otherwise you may end up with a damaged Pi!!!

Setting Raspberry Pi up for serial communications

In order to use the Pi’s serial port for anything else than as a console, you first need to disable getty (the program that displays login seen) by commenting the serial line out of Pi’s /etc/inittab:

1:2345:respawn:/sbin/getty 115200 tty1
# Line below commented out
# 2:23:respawn:/sbin/getty -L ttyAMA0 115200 vt100
3:23:respawn:/sbin/getty 115200 tty3
4:23:respawn:/sbin/getty 115200 tty4
5:23:respawn:/sbin/getty 115200 tty5
6:23:respawn:/sbin/getty 115200 tty6

If you don’t want the Pi sending stuff over the serial line when it boots, you can also remove the statements console=ttyAMA0,115200 and kgdboc=ttyAMA0,115200 from /boot/cmdline.txt. You’ll need to reboot the Pi in order for the changes to take effect.
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Benchmarking Raspberry Pi GPIO Speed

UPDATED: 2015-02-15! This article has been very popular, so I’ve now updated all the benchmarks using the latest firmware and library versions. The scope has also been upgraded to a PicoScope 5444B with better resolution and bandwith than the earlier models. :)


Don’t try this at home! Shorting GND and VCC with a probe might fry your Pi and more!

Method and Summary of Results

The basic test setup was to toggle one of the GPIO pins between zero and one as fast as possible. GPIO 4 was selected due to easy access and no overlapping functionality. This is basically the “upper limit” for any signalling one can hope to achieve with the GPIO pins – real-life scenarios where processing needs to be done would need to aim for some fraction of these values. Here are the current results:

Language Library Tested / version Square wave
Shell /proc/mem access 2015-02-14 2.8 kHz
Shell / gpio utility WiringPi gpio utility 2015-02-15 / 2.25 40 Hz
Python RPi.GPIO 2015-02-15 / 0.5.10 70 kHz
Python wiringpi2 bindings 2015-02-15 / latest github 28 kHz
Ruby wiringpi bindings 2015-02-15 / latest gem (1.1.0) 21 kHz
C Native library 2015-02-15 / latest RaspPi wiki code 22 MHz
C BCM 2835 2015-02-15 / 1.38 5.4 MHz
C wiringPi 2015-02-15 / 2.25 4.1 – 4.6 MHz
Perl BCM 2835 2015-02-15 / 1.9 48 kHz

Shell script

The easiest way to manipulate the Pi GPIO pins is via console. Here’s a simple shell script to toggle the GPIO 4 as fast as possible (add sleep 1 after both to get a nice LED toggle test):


echo "4" > /sys/class/gpio/export
echo "out" > /sys/class/gpio/gpio4/direction

while true
	echo 1 > /sys/class/gpio/gpio4/value
	echo 0 > /sys/class/gpio/gpio4/value

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Raspberry Pi Serial Console With MAX3232CPE

In addition to the audio, video, network and USB connectors, the Raspberry Pi also has 26 GPIO pins. These pins also include an UART serial console, which can be used to log in to the Pi, and many other things. However, normal UART device communicate with -12V (logical “1”) and +12V (logical “0”), which may just fry something in the 3.3V Pi. Even “TTL level” serial at 5V runs the same risk.

So in this short tutorial, I’ll show you how to use a MAX3232CPE transceiver to safely convert the normal UART voltage levels to 3.3V accepted by Raspberry Pi, and connect to the Pi using Putty. This is what you’ll need:

  • Raspberry Pi unit
  • Serial port in your PC or USB to serial -adapter
  • MAX3232CPE or similar RS-232 to 3.3V logic level transceiver
  • 5 x 0.1 uF capacitors (I used plastic ones)
  • Jumper wires and breadboard
  • Some type of female-female adapter

The last item is needed to connect male-male jumper wires to RaspPi GPIO pins. I had a short 2×6 pin extension cable available and used that, but an IDE cable and other types ribbon cable work fine as well. Just make sure it doesn’t internally short any of the connections – use a multimeter if in doubt!

The connections on Pi side are rather straightforward. We’ll use the 3.3V pin for power – the draw should not exceed 50 mA, but this should not be an issue, since MAX3232CPE draws less than 1 mA and the capacitors are rather small. GND is also needed, and the two UART pins, TXD and RXD.
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Raspberry Pi arrived today!

A rather long wait ended today, when DHL dropped this little package off at work in the morning. I had placed my Raspberry Pi order in the first 24 hours when they started taking orders (or actually, registrations of interest) from RS Components, but it took about two months for me to receive the invitation to order, and three more weeks for the order to arrive.

Opening up the box, I was greeted with a very small computer, and two small leaflets, a quick start guide and a regulatory and safety pamphlet. The board is really quite small, just a few millimeters larger than a credit card. Two USB slots, HDMI, coaxial and stereo audio plugs and micro-USB for power, plus an ethernet jack.

I ran a quick test to see if everything worked. Initially, there was flicker on my projector (the only device with native HDMI input I currently have), but that turned out to be incompatibility with the HDMI switch I had – without it it worked just fine. I used the premade Debian image on a SD card and it worked perfectly.
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