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Split MIDI Files with Python

In my previous post I showed how to use Raspberry Pi to automatically record MIDI files from digital piano whenever you turn it on. However, if you sit down and play for an hour, and get one big MIDI file, it is not very useful. So what to do?

Pianoteq has a feature that splits your playing session based on breaks you take between playing notes. So I decided to mimick this feature with a simple Python script that:

  1. Keeps tab on keys and pedals pressed
  2. Whenever X seconds elapse without any keys or pedals down, a new MIDI file is started
  3. Additionally, if user presses and releases sustain pedal several times in the end, filename for that MIDI is altered to “highlight” that file

I first thought to learn enough of MIDI file format to do everything from scratch, but there’s quite a bit of small details to handle, so in the end I decided to use an external toolkit from Craig Stuart Sapp called midifile to do the heavy lifting. You should be able to just clone the Git repo and make it with Raspberry Pi:

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ git clone pi@raspberrypi:~ $ cd midifile pi@raspberrypi:~/midifile $ make

You should now have two useful commands in ~/midifile/bin: toascii to read a MIDI file and dump an ASCII (text) version of it, and tobinary to do the reverse. With Python’s Popen and smart piping, we can read and write the binary MIDI files as they were in this text format. You can check out how the format looks like with some MIDI file you have:

~/midifile/bin/toascii somemidi.mid | less

Here’s a sample of a MIDI file recorded by arecordmidi (I added the note in square brackets):

"MThd" 4'6 2'0 2'1 2'384

;;; TRACK 0 ---------------------------------- "MTrk" 4'50044 v0 ff 51 v3 t120 v0 ff 58 v4 '4 '2 '24 '8 v7147 90 '58 '29 v88 b0 '64 '5 v1 b0 '64 '7


v0 ff 2f v0

There’s some header data in the beginning, and each MIDI event is comprised of a deltatime field starting with ‘v’, and then fairly standard MIDI events in straightforward syntax. I hardcoded my program to expect single track which starts with tempo and speed data (ff 51 and ff 58 lines) which I use to calculate how many deltatime units is one second. I copy this header part to start of every MIDI file, and append the final “ff 2f v0” (END TRACK) event to the end. Here’s the full code:


import sys
from subprocess import Popen, PIPE

toascii = '/home/pi/midifile/bin/toascii'
tobinary = '/home/pi/midifile/bin/tobinary'

def writeAsc(segNum, common, seg, highlight=False):
    filename = '%s_%d.mid' % (sys.argv[1].rsplit('.', 1)[0], segNum)
    if highlight: filename = filename.replace('.mid', '_HIGH.mid')
    with Popen([tobinary, filename], stdin=PIPE) as proc:
        f = proc.stdin
        for line in common+seg: f.write(bytes(line, 'ASCII'))
        f.write(b'v0\tff 2f v0\n') # End of track
    print('Wrote', len(seg), 'items to', filename)

if len(sys.argv) < 2:
    print('Usage: <midifile.mid> [splitlimit]')
    print('\nSplit limit is in seconds, default is 5')

if len(sys.argv) > 2:
    limit = int(sys.argv[2])
    limit = 5

with Popen([toascii, sys.argv[1]], stdout=PIPE) as proc:
    fin = proc.stdout
    T = 0 # current time base
    pedals = set() # active pedals
    keys = set() # active keys
    silent = True # Is all silent?
    silentT = 0 # Start of silent

    common = [] # Common lines in beginning
    seg = [] # Current segment
    segNum = 1 # Running number

    pedCount = 0 # End with double press of pedal to highlight

    for line in fin:
        line = line.decode('ASCII')
        if len(line) == 0 or line[0] != 'v':
            if len(common) == 5: # Try to extract PPQ
                try: PPQ = int(line[2:])
                except: pass

        it = line.split()
        T += int(it[0][1:])

        if it[1] == 'ff':
            if it[2] != '2f': # Skip EOF
                common.append(line) # Tempo and time etc. into common
                if it[2] == '51': # Try to extract BPM
                    try: BPM = int(it[-1][1:])
                    except: pass

        if it[1] == 'b0': # Controller info
            if it[3] == "'0":
                if not pedals: pedCount += 1 # Increase pedal count
        elif it[1] == '90': # Note on
        elif it[1] == '80': # Note off

        if (pedals or keys) and silent: # End of silence
            silent = False
            if T-silentT > limit*PPQ*BPM/60: # Over specified limit
                line = 'v0\t%s\n' % (' '.join(it[1:])) # hack zero timedelta
                if seg: # Data to write
                    writeAsc(segNum, common, seg, pedCount > 1)
                    segNum += 1
                seg = [] # Clear segment
        else: silent, silentT = True, T

        if it[1] == '90': pedCount = 0 # Delayed reset of pedCount on notes

    if seg: # Data to write
        writeAsc(segNum, common, seg, pedCount > 1)
        segNum += 1

The code should be possible to understand, but you don’t have to if you don’t want to, just save as in your home directory, chmod a+x and you are ready to rock:

./ somemidi.mid

You can add a number as a second command line argument and the script will use that number of seconds of silence to mark a splitting point. MIDI part files will be named somemidi_N.mid where N is a running number. If you double-press pedal in the end of a playing segment (without any keys down), there will be additional somemidi_X_high.mid postfix to “highlight” that one. Nice!

If you want, you could even modify the script in my previous post to do this splitting after the arecordmidi command is terminated. I’m not revisiting my recordings that often, so I’ve so far decided to use this tool on “need to do it basis”. :)



Please modify the “#Controlling info” section and add an additional condition before pedals.remove(), because in my real life situation this code run to a KeyError exception. The additional condition has to examine, whether it[2] is in the pedals set:
if it[3] == “‘0”:
if it[2] in pedals:

Joonas Pihlajamaa:

Good call, I can see how that could happen, if the device sends 0 first or the arecordmidi starts a bit late after pedal is already pressed.

I changed remove() to discard(), so it will just do nothing if they is missing.