Repairing a Shuttle motherboard with new capacitors

Just a short post today, in case this will save someone’s day like it did my friend’s. He has a small Shuttle PC setup that suddenly stopped working about three weeks ago – the machine seemed to power up, but no picture came to screen. After some googling, he found out that the motherboard of this specific MB+case combo sometimes dies because of failed capacitors. And indeed, the biggest caps on the MB seemed to have a slight bulge on the top. So he called me if I could help him to replace them, to see if that would help.

The first thing to do was of course procure similar caps. The possibly failed models were three 1500 uF, 10V caps, so I got four new ones to replace them.

Removing the old caps

The first task was to remove the old capacitors from the motherboard. Because we wouldn’t be needing them, we used some force and cutters to first remove the capacitors themselves, and then set out to remove the legs with a solder iron. Unfortunately, the lead-free solder had a melting point beyond the number 7 tips of my Weller Magnastat, and no amount of heating was able to remove the legs!
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World’s Simplest Logic Analyzer for $5

Today’s post documents my recent hack that may just be the world’s simplest logic analyzer. More accurately, it is a circuit consisting of a 74HC126 quad buffer chip and R-2R resistor network (eleven 330 ohm resistors) that acts as a D/A converter, enabling one to analyze four logic lines with a single channel digital oscilloscope and $5 in parts!

With the circuit described below and an entry level USB scope like the PicoScope 2204, bursts of data can be captured at 10 MSps (million samples per second), and continuous capture rates of 2.5 MSps are possible, the length of the capture only limited by your PC’s memory. This is obviously much better than recently covered Bus Pirate’s 1 MSps for 4 ms!

Even higher throughput can be achieved with better scopes, although the A/D conversion requires several consecutive samples at same logic level, which means that a 100 MHz scope with 200 MSps capture rate should generally be able to analyze logic operating at ~40 MHz speeds. At such speeds, a fast buffer chip and D/A converter is naturally needed as well.

Above you can see an example of SD card traffic analyzed using my circuit – the full capture was 10 million samples which enabled me to capture all the traffic generated by my SD tutorial project without any additional triggering. Read on for details of the hack. A lot of effort has been made to keep the material very accessible and informative to electronics beginners, too. In the end of the article, source code for PicoTech 2000 series is included, and it can easily be adapted for any scope that can transfer captured waveforms to PC (in the simplest form by reading waveforms from a CSV file).

How It Works

Basic idea is to connect 4 logic lines to a D/A converter, that will transform the binary 1/0 values (represented by VCC and GND voltage levels, respectively) into a 16-step analog waveform. Because input lines cannot be directly connected to the R-2R resistor network that is used to do the D/A conversion, a 4-line buffer chip is used in between to provide high impedance inputs that do not interfere with the logic being analyzed.

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Handy Pinout Reference Sheet

Just thought to share a quick tip today. I’ve noticed that when doing work with AVR MCU’s, I’m using ATtiny2313, ATmega88 and ATtiny45/85 for 99 % of the time. I got tired of opening the Atmel data sheets every time when swapping a new chip into a breadboard, so I constructed a real cut’n’paste reference sheet by gluing the relevant portions on a piece of rigid cardboard:

I even used a piece of paper to mark the 6-pin header pinout, it’s a real time-saver! And thanks to the cardboard back, it’s easy to keep below my LCD monitor and pull out every time I need it. Additional idea would be to leave some white space around the pinouts and laminate it with clear contact paper, so I could doodle project-specific notes with a water-based marker and clean it after I don’t need them anymore!

Oh, and as you can see, I’m using a Mac this time to do some flashing. I installed the excellent Crosspack for Mac from Obdev guys. It’s a streamlined way to install avrdude and avr-gcc on a Mac, and now I can take my electronics hobby with me when I’m traveling. :)