Tutorial: State Machines with C Callbacks

State machine

Many electronics projects involve the device transitioning from one state to another. On a high level, it could be that your project is initially in a state where it awaits input, and once it receives it, it goes to another state where it performs a series of actions, eventually returning back to the initial state. On a lower level, many communications protocols are often simple or increasingly complex state machines. In many cases, an elegantly implemented state machine can simplify your code and make it easier to manage.

There are several methods to implement state machines programmatically starting from simple if-conditions to state variables and switch structures. In this tutorial I’ll cover a slightly more advanced method of using callbacks or “function pointers” as they are implemented in C. This has some performance benefits, makes up for some clean code, and you’ll learn a bit on the way!

State Machines with Conditionals

First, to introduce the idea of a state machine, lets take a simple example: Blinking LEDs. Imagine you want the LED to turn on for a second, and then turn off. We could do it with a simple 2-state machine:

enum states { 

enum states state = LED_OFF;

while(1) {
  if(state == LED_OFF) {
    state = LED_ON;
  } else {
    state = LED_OFF;
  sleep(1); // sleep for a second

If you can understand the code above, you have pretty much grasped the fundamentals of state machines. We have some processing specific to given state, and when we want to go to another state, we use a variable (in this example it’s called state) to do that. And by the way, if you haven’t encountered enum before, you should check out Enumerated type in Wikipedia. It’s a very handful tool to add to your C coding arsenal.
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Fast DDS with ATmega88

I’m planning to make some RFID hacking in near future using 150 kHz tags. Since I don’t have a signal generator, I decided to go where quite many people have gone before and build myself one, more specifically a DDS. Instead of just taking a complete project from the net, I thought this would be a good way to learn a bit of AVR assembly programming, and manual D/A (digital to analog) conversion using R-2R ladders. Here’s what I built:

I’m skipping the schematic to save some time – basically it’s a ATmega88 with 6-pin programming header, power, a 16 MHz crystal (other frequencies also work, lfuse for this setup if 0xFF) and a red LED that is not used. The R-2R ladder is wired with white jumper wires to PB0-PB5 (it’s a 6-bit DAC) so that PB0 is the “least significant bit” and PB5 the most significant one. Read on for details.

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